Near to the Southern Pole of Mars three new underground lakes were found. Scientists also have confirmed existence of the fourth lake about which they hinted in 2018, as BBC broadcasts.
Water is vital for all the live, therefore the discovery will be interesting for the researchers studying possibility of existence of life in other parts of the solar system. But Martian lakes are extremely salty that can create problems for survival in them of any microbic forms of life.
Billions years ago water flew in the rivers and gathered in lakes for surfaces of Mars. But since then the red planet has lost the most part of its atmosphere, and it means that today water cannot long remain liquid on its surface.
In 2018 researchers used the data of the radar of “Marsis” to find out an underground lake in a width of 20 km, located in 1, 5 km under layered adjournment of the Southern Pole of Mars, the thick polar cap formed by ice layers and dust.
At these depths there is insufficiently warm to melt ice, therefore scientists consider that liquid water should contain high concentration of dissolved salts. These chemical salts can lower temperature of freezing of water considerably. Actually, recent experiments have shown that water with the dissolved salts of magnesium and calcium perchlorate can remain liquid at temperature-123°C.
In some hypersaline lakes on the Earth concentration of salt can reach 40 %. It is not known yet how much saline are lakes on Mars precisely.
Salinity of lakes has a special value for existence in them lives. On the Earth there are microbes which live in very salty conditions – drimophilus, therefore, scientists will continue researches of Martian underground reservoirs, hoping to find microorganisms living in them.