70 % of changes of ecosystems of the earth and 40 % of changes of sea ecosystems – result of activity of the human. It was declared by the UNESCO general director Audrey Azoulay, opening the forum on biodiversity, dated to the 50th anniversary of the UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme. Many speakers, including famous primatologist Jane Goodall, noted that for nature preservation it is very important to reconsider the relations with the world surrounding us and to eradicate poverty.
The speaker said that human continues to wage self-destructive war with nature which leads to environmental contamination, loss of biodiversity and climate change – as a result mankind existence has appeared under the threat. With nature as was marked by the head of UNESCO, it is necessary to consider the question of the relation of man not only in a scientific plane – it is a question of ethical and moral problem.
«We urge to make revolution: completely to reconsider our relations with nature, – stated Azoulay. It is a necessary condition of survival of mankind as our health depends on health of environment and all live organisms with which we share this planet».
UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme was created in 1971. Its main task is creation of a scientific basis for strengthening of relations between people and the environment surrounding them and assistance to sustainable development. Already mentioned zoologist Jane Goodall, UN Messenger of Peace, acting during today’s meeting, highly appreciated the value of this program.
As she said, responsibility for nature protection first of all lies on those who use its resources, local residents who are obliged to learn to live in harmony with the world around. UNESCO considers that each inhabitant of the Earth should learn to bear a private responsibility for the state of nature.
Goodall reminded that for realisation of this problem it is the extremely important to eradicate poverty. «The people living in slums, buy the cheapest meal, they do not presume to be set to themselves by ethical questions, to be interested, where and how they have made this meal, how much humanely addressed with animals, whether used child labour, – underlined Goodall. – These people have no interest with questions which everyone should ask oneself, it is necessary for them to survive. Therefore poverty eradication is one of important conditions of struggle against biodiversity loss».
This thought was supported also by Pope Francis– his message to participants of the forum was read by the Holy See’s Permanent Observer to UNESCO Francesco Follo. «Struggle against climate change and extreme poverty is the difficult and interconnected problems, – the pontiff considers. – it is necessary to come to new model of development in which centre there is each person and mankind as a whole».
The Pope also is convinced that the Paris agreement on climate is to see climate change as much more of a moral than a technical issue. «We should change our approach to nature», – he calls mankind.
UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme unites 714 biosphere reserves in 75 countries of the world – this list constantly replenishes. During recent session in October of last year the Coordination council included in a network of 25 more new objects, including two Kazakhstan – Almaty and West Altay biosphere reserves, and also the Russian Kologrivski Forest Nature Reserve, being in a northeast part of Russian plain.
Biosphere reserves are created for the purpose of environment protection. They urged to encourage harmonious interaction of the person and the nature in interests of preservation of a biological variety and rational wildlife management. They occupy one of the central places in research work of UNESCO.
In Turkmenistan there are 9 reserves and 15 sanctuaries, 17 nature monuments. Candidates for inclusion into the List of the UNESCO World heritage are the Repetek international biosphere reserve, Badhyz, Sunt-Hasardag, Amudarya, Khazar and Koytendag reserves, unique ecosystems of the Kara Kum desert.