The researches revealing the connection between air pollution and the novel coronavirus infection, hardness of the curse of the disease and death rate, were held during the outgoing year in various countries. It is known that long inhalation of polluted air raises risk of occurrence of problems with immune, cardiovascular, respiratory systems, and the chronic form of these problems negatively influences the forecast for patients in case they catch coronavirus.
On the basis of the research held in 355 cities and municipalities of the Netherlands, scientists have come to a conclusion that the firm particles of type PM 2.5 representing firm micro particles and the smallest droplets of liquids in the size about from 10 nanometres to 2, 5 microns, are very important predictors (prognostic in parameter) quantities of the confirmed cases and quantity of hospitalisation for COVID-19. Estimations show that the increase in air pollution by 20 % will lead to doubling of expected coronavirus cases’ infection.
It is confirmed also with results of research in China in which connection between air pollution by firm particles, nitrogen oxide level of disease COVID-19 was studied. Researchers have revealed that in areas with higher level of air pollution was on the average by 22 % of more cases of novel coronavirus infection. And in the Italian research the hypothesis that the virus can spread by air with firm particles has been put forward. This assumption was considered in Lombardy where high level of air pollution and a considerable quantity of death from COVID-19 was observed.
By results of the research, published in medical magazine Cardiovascular Research, about 15 % of victims of COVID-19 worldwide it is connected with air pollution. Especially it is characteristic for the countries of East Asia and Europe.
«When people inhale polluted air, the smallest particles from it get through lungs into blood vessels, causing inflammations and cellular stress. The internal surface of arteries is as a result damaged; they are narrowed and lose flexibility. Something similar occurs and when coronavirus by same means gets into an organism», – one of authors of research, the professor of University of Johann Gutenberg (Germany) Thomas Münzel told.
Research has shown that influence of air pollution on the share of victims of COVID-19 is great enough: for example, in Czechia with air pollution was connected about 29 % of death from COVID-19, and in China, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium – from 20 to 25 %. In cities of East and Southern Asia this indicator was still above and reached the point of 35-40 %.
As was underlined by Münzel, «Recent researches of colleagues show that aerosols and dust particles raise activity of receptors ACE2 on the surface of cages of lungs which novel type of coronavirus uses for penetration into cells. Therefore it is possible to say that air pollution strikes double blow to health of the person, damaging tissues of lungs and doing by their more vulnerable for virus attacks».
The dangerous link between impurity of air and distribution of coronavirus infection makes one of bases of national model of reaction of Turkmenistan to the pandemic and its international cooperation in opposition to this threat.
From the very beginning of the pandemic the assumption came out that viruses extend not only air-drop, but also an air-dust way that considerably raises an infection distance. Thereupon in the video message to participants of the 75th session of UN General Assembly the president of Turkmenistan drew attention of the world community to problems of Aral and Aral region where in the face of the pandemic there is an aggravation of a disastrous ecological situation which bears a real threat to health and life of people and considerably raises risks of explosive distribution of epidemic.
The dust which rises from the bottom of the dried sea and extends to thousands of kilometres, negatively influences life of millions people not only in the central Asian region. The Aral crisis is recognised by the world community as the largest ecological accident of the XXI century which for a long time have become a global problem. After survey of water area of the dried Aral Sea the UN Secretary-General António Guterres named the Aral which were once fourth in the world by size the closed sea, the biggest ecological accident of our time.
The global negative influence of the Aral disaster demands the global co-ordinated efforts on the basis of the system and complex approach, corresponding documentary-legal registration and deducing as a separate direction of work of the United Nations. The essence of the international initiatives of Turkmenistan also consists in it, in particular, consistently advanced idea of creation of the Special program of the United Nations for pool of Aral sea in which on stabilisation and improvement of ecological situation concrete plans would be outlined in the region.
As a platform for consolidation of joint efforts on the Aral issue serve accepted at the initiative of the country in April 2018 and in May, 2019 of the resolution of UN General Assembly on cooperation of the United Nations and the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea. Developing activity on creation of international legal bases of the decision of the Aral problematics, in May, 2021 within the limits of regular session of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Turkmenistan plans to present an original project of the concept and structure of the future Special program on the Aral.
In view of the factor of direct influence of negative consequences of the Aral ecological accident on air pollution and, finally, on health of people, the country considers expedient to organise in cooperation with the WHO and UNDP the international researches on study of correlation of degree of impurity of air mass with disease level infectious, oncological and cardiovascular illnesses.
At the national level for population protection under the recommendation the WHO in Turkmenistan the mask regimen was introduced, wide preventive and explanatory work is held. Through sms-mailings and television citizens of the country constantly are informed on per cent of excess of dust particles in air, about their harm for health and urge to observe measures of protection recommended by physicians.