One of the most mysterious seas on the globe, keeping its many secrets and amazing discoveries, has always been a center of attraction for residents of Turkmenistan and numerous tourists. But what do we know about the Caspian, which connects the shores of Turkmenistan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran and Azerbaijan.
Every year on August 12th, the sea celebrates its “professional” holiday – Caspian Day. It arose thanks to the Tehran Convention on Protection of Unique Marine Environment from Pollution and Protection of its Biological Resources, which entered into force on August 12th, 2006.
There are large oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, and its coast and shelf supply limestone, salt, sand and clay. Taking care of the ecological state of the sea is always a priority of the Caspian states. Therefore, the agenda of the I Caspian Economic Forum, held last year in Avaza, also included environmental issues.
On the eve of the holiday, I would like to tell readers some interesting facts about the Caspian.
Millions of years have passed since the formation of the Caspian Sea, and it appeared after the Sarmatian Sea was divided into two parts. The second part formed the Black Sea. The uniqueness of the Caspian Sea is that it is the largest inbound body of water on Earth, and there are still debates about whether it is a sea or a lake, or is it a sea-lake?
And although the waters of the Caspian do not flow into any of the world’s oceans, it is officially called the sea. Salt water, large size, rich resources, including hydrocarbon and biological ones, ebb, flow and powerful storms endow this large body of water with all the features of a real sea. Moreover, the water in the Caspian Sea is renewed every quarter of a thousand years.
The water level of the Caspian Sea regularly drops and rises, in connection with these unstable fluctuations they say that “the sea is breathing”. And the rivers flowing into it help it to “breathe”. About 130 large and small rivers feed the Caspian Sea, however, its main artery is one of the largest rivers on Earth – Volga.
At different times the Caspian Sea had many names – Khvalynskoye, Abeskunskoye, Sarayskoye and others. Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan today also use one of the historical names – Khazar Sea. Khazars are a Turkic-speaking nomadic people who have inhabited the shores of the Caspian Sea since ancient times.